The effects of biological weapons on the past and the present

Once a human is infected, the resulting disease can either develop into bubonic plague, which is difficult to transmit among humans and fairly easy to treat with antibioticsor — if the infection spreads to the lungs — it becomes pneumonic plague, which develops rapidly and does not respond well to antibiotics.

biological warfare examples

Though 43 people were hospitalized, no one was killed, and the wrongdoers were prosecuted. After considering the issue in the wake of Dark Zephyr, the National Biodefense Science Board, a federal advisory panel to HHS, decided that testing the vaccine in children is ethically justifiable, given that it would provide information important to the health and well-being of any child victims of an attack.

Recent bioterrorism attacks 2017

Nightingale, S. The breakup of the Soviet bioweapons program and the dispersal of its scientists and technicians may have heightened, rather than lowered, the global proliferation of bioweapons technologies Bozheyeva et al. The importance of buffalo as a food resource for African hunter—gatherer societies was surpassed, however, by the immense importance of domesticated cattle to pastoral and agricultural societies of eastern and southern Africa. Cult members introduced bacteria into salad bars and other restaurant food receptacles after their attempts to contaminate the local water supply failed. In World War I an average of one ton of agent was necessary to kill just one soldier. Department of Homeland Security includes several groups that address bioweapon threats. There is evidence Germany used glanders and anthrax to infect horses and cattle, respectively, in Bucharest in , and employed similar tactics to infect 4' mules in Mesopotamia the next year. Henderson, D. Part of the funding supports the Strategic National Stockpile, which manages stores of vaccines, drugs, and medical supplies that may be deployed in national emergencies. Current efforts to save the American chestnut from extinction focus on biological control of the disease itself through a virulence-attenuating virus and hybridization and backcrossing with a blight-resistant related species, the Chinese chestnut C. Are chemicals still material of weapons if they are used in very low concentrations? Under ideal conditions 1 ton of Sarin dropped from an airplane could produce 3' to 8' deaths, however, under breezy conditions only to The potential for catastrophic social and economic consequences from bioweapon disease epidemics is proportionally higher in developing countries, where doctors, veterinarians, antibiotics, and medical or veterinarian treatment and quarantine facilities are in short supply.

And indeed, the possibility of such an attack may be very remote. Perhaps the oldest traditional application of bioweapon techniques has been the contamination or poisoning of drinking water sources using animal carcasses, human cadavers, feces, or poisonous plants and their derivatives.

A more recent U.

biological warfare today

In the case of anthrax, the risk of subsequent disease outbreaks within contaminated areas may continue for decades and even centuries after the total eradication of hosts and vectors: Viable, infectious anthrax bacilli have been cultured from animal bones buried for to years in archeological sites de VosDixon et al.

As early as BC the Greeks polluted the wells and drinking water supplies of their enemies with the corpses of animals.

Biological warfare history timeline

Other offices are responsible for responding to and analyzing bioweapon attacks after they occur to help investigators identify perpetrators and determine the origin and method of attack. During World War I, Germany investigated techniques for using anthrax, glanders, cholera, and fungal diseases of wheat as biological weapons. No elaborate delivery technologies or methods are necessary for clandestine, economically targeted bioweapons attacks on agricultural crops or livestock. One option is an accelerated approval path that might apply in the case of a life-threatening disease with an unlicensed vaccine that has meaningful therapeutic benefit over existing options. It appears that effect of the radioactive by inhalation of small doses will have only a small impact on risk to die of cancer, whereas the heavy metal effect seems to dominate [32]. This mixture, known as Napalm, can also be used in aircraft or missile-delivered warheads against military or civilian targets. Diseases to which humans and human commensals have developed immunity or high levels of resistance may cause catastrophic mortality in naive and susceptible wildlife populations. The OPCW has about staff members, consisting of inspectors and administrative staff. The U. During the Second World War the British concentrated on various herbicides. All that is required is a willing actor or conspirator, a little careful planning, and access to an appropriate disease agent OTA

But, whatever its source, smallpox did spread among Natives Americans in the area during and after that rebellion. A more detailed description of risk assessment by terrorism with chemical and biological weapons can be found in [41].

bioterrorism attacks timeline

The latter point may be illustrated by the double use of Zyklon B or Cyclon B in Englishthat is used as fumigant for the purpose of pest and vermin control.

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Introduction to Chemical and Biological Weapons