The community members we spoke to were united in their understanding that FGM is a form of child abuse, and in their commitment to supporting communities and families to protect their children from FGM safeguarding. Through the patient and public events we report here, we sought to work with communities and professionals to explore research priorities and understand research and service needs to support both communities and health professionals working with those affected by FGM in the context of these changes. Keywords: Female genital mutilation FGM , Research and service priorities, Patient and public involvement Plain English summary Female genital mutilation FGM refers to a set of practices involving cutting, alteration or injury to the external female genitalia for non-medical reasons. What do we know now? Participant: No, because most Somalis has stopped doing it now. Smart, C. Results The impact of these legislative and reporting requirements on the trust needed for community members to seek to consult health services was identified as important for further research. It is therefore important to explore the impact of recent FGM legislative changes on relationships with health professionals in the context of their wider health. Kwateng-Kluvitse, A. This is consistent with research from Myhill and Johnson How much, where and when? Sometimes genital tissue is stitched again several times, including after childbirth, hence the woman goes through repeated opening and closing procedures, further increasing both immediate and long-term risks; psychological problems depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, low self-esteem, etc.
This article has been written in collaboration with the voices who contributed to our PPI activities. These are in the context of government efforts to eliminate the practice.
Commonly stated reasons for carrying out FGM are: tradition, religion, protecting virginity and familial honour, aesthetics and hygiene, although these vary according to country and area. Finally, we end with conclusions, and recommendations for policy and practice.
Over million girls and women worldwide are living with the effects of FGM. Participants were offered the choice, where possible, of an individual interview or group interview. This incident may well have fed into wider fears within the community that the police treats allegations of FGM insensitively.
Causes of fgm
They need to feel able and willing to access those services. FGM is therefore a global concern. These workshops revealed the importance of socio-culturally authentic research in this highly contested area. Gill, A. WHO has launched a new clinical handbook to help health care workers provide such care. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article for both commercial and non-commercial purposes , subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. In part, this was because we were commissioned by the funder to interview survivors who were adult over 18 years of age at the time of interview, and had experienced the HBV or had contact with the police in the past three years. Whose voices? Jefferson, M. Future proofing security of such confidential information is a legitimate concern. We need to understand how we can develop and support this process happening, and what techniques, resources and research would be needed to allow this. We have concerns that the majority of cases of FGM identified through mandatory reporting are historical, and there has been no evaluation on the potential unintended consequences of the mandatory reporting duty on how able women and girls feel to seek help or support for their FGM, both in health and school settings.
Because I think up until that point, I was living with my body quite freely, maybe naively. This statement provided evidence collected over the previous decade about the practice of FGM.
We have concerns that the majority of cases of FGM identified through mandatory reporting are historical, and there has been no evaluation on the potential unintended consequences of the mandatory reporting duty on how able women and girls feel to seek help or support for their FGM, both in health and school settings. Reiner, R. We held a series of patient and public involvement PPI events with women, communities, health professionals, teachers and researchers living and working in England. Despite this, a number of myths and misconceptions about FGM persist, which support the perpetuation of this harmful practice. This incident may well have fed into wider fears within the community that the police treats allegations of FGM insensitively. The Bristol study concluded that confidence and trust in the health services was minimal. Future proofing security of such confidential information is a legitimate concern. The need for professionals to be aware of FGM, including having skills to respond appropriately to women with FGM without seeming to be horrified or judgemental, was identified as important, with women describing their distress at reactions they or their friends had experienced in healthcare encounters. Jefferson, M. Participants were also given the opportunity to share details of their experience and any other issues that they felt relevant to police practice in this area. We had experience of one focus group made up of women from one community, and another where the focus group included women from different community backgrounds, as did the multi-agency workshop. Because I think up until that point, I was living with my body quite freely, maybe naively. Whose voices?
Within the FGM cases, it was suggested by interviewees that this is a very private affair between the child and the parents. How to involve men in the campaign against FGM, and also to understand their views and needs regarding FGM was identified as a research priority.
Further, there are difficulties in trusting such accounts.
based on 50 review