Reason is opposed to the sense insofar as sensations are restricted and individual, and thought is free and universal.
From his father he inherited the practical training of medical science. He worked out the hydrologic cycle: "Now the sun, moving as it does, sets up processes of change and becoming and decay, and by its agency the finest and sweetest water is every day carried up and is dissolved into vapour and rises to the upper region, where it is condensed again by the cold and so returns to the earth.
Ancient sources report that during his campaigns Alexander arranged for biological specimens to be sent to his tutor from all parts of Greece and Asia Minor. A simple example of the formal cause is the mental image or idea that allows an artist, architect, or engineer to create a drawing. In this sense, Aristotle's biology is scientific.
The significance of Aristotle, compared to the recent situation in education, starts with the counter-mosaic approach to teaching. Thales, Anaximenes, Anaximander were philosophers of nature. Carried out to its logical consequences, the denial of these laws would lead to the sameness of all facts and all assertions.