The banks also provide longer-term loans to borrowers, and act as financial intermediaries for those funds. It permits banks to use funds the bulk of deposits that would be otherwise unused to generate returns in the form of interest rates on loans, It also, however, could catch a bank short in the self-perpetuating panic of a bank run.
Because banks are only required to keep a fraction of their deposits in reserve and may loan out the rest, banks are able to create money. Each bank is legally authorized to issue credit up to a specified multiple of its reserves, so reserves available to satisfy payment of deposit liabilities are less than the total amount which the bank is obligated to pay in satisfaction of demand deposits.
This is called the fractional-reserve banking system: banks only hold a fraction of total deposits as cash on hand. When a deposit of central bank money is made at a commercial bank, the central bank money is removed from circulation and added to the commercial banks' reserves it is no longer counted as part of M1 money supply.
Many economists believe that these should be adjusted by the government to promote macroeconomic stability. In this case, depositors still have their demand deposits totaling USD million, but borrowers now also hold an additional USD 90 million in cash.
Instead, it can use some of them to make loans to people who need money e.
Of course, there must always be some reserves for customers who want to make a withdrawal. In fact, the vast majority of money in the economy today comes from these loans created by banks.