An overview of the outbreak of the ebola virus
Improved infectious disease monitoring is the stepping-stone toward better disease prevention and control efforts, and recent research has revealed the potential of digital technologies to transform the field of global health.
Ebola virus disease in West Africa--the first 9 months of the epidemic and forward projections.
It is difficult to distinguish EVD from other infectious diseases such as malaria, typhoid fever, meningitis, shigellosis, leptospirosis and yellow fever. Contact with body fluids should be avoided and washing with soap and water is recommended. People remain infectious as long as their blood and secretions contain the virus, a period that has been reported to be as long as 61 days after onset of illness.
Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; Of interest, some researchers suggested that EBOV outbreaks might be related to certain confluences of environmental and climatic conditions [ 4 ].
Ebola virus symptoms
An exemplary case of digital technologies is the use of high-throughput genomic sequencing, in which Ebola diagnosis for patients have been achieved in record-breaking time less than 24 hours [ 9 ]. This includes rehydration with fluids and body salts given orally or intravenously , and treatment of specific symptoms such as low blood pressure, vomiting, diarrhea and infections. On June 11, , the Ugandan government confirmed the first case of Ebola in the country related to the outbreak. Abstract Background The Ebola outbreak across West Africa was devastating, acting not only as a wake-up call for the global health community, but also as a catalyst for innovative change and global action. As a result of quick recovery of one of the Dallas Texas USA nurses following the transfer of plasma from Ebola survivors; passive immunity has become a potential treatment for EVD [ 21 ]. Laboratory diagnosis for EVD should be performed in a well-equipped laboratory with up to biosafety level 4 bio- contaminant facilities for viral culturing. These include basic hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, use of personal protective equipment to block splashes or other contact with infected materials , safe injection practices and safe burial practices. Population movement further exacerbated transmission between populations, with mass gatherings for burial services acting as a major hotspot for transmission. Except for the year-old Spanish priest who died despite the ZMapp treatment, the other five were reportedly improved significantly after receiving ZMapp. The first case in the West Africa outbreak was likely acquired via exposure to bats. For more, read the Guidance on clinical care for survivors of Ebola virus disease Ebola virus is known to persist in immune-privileged sites in some people who have recovered from Ebola virus disease. PLoS Curr.
However, it is believed that the first patient became infected through contact with an infected animal like a fruit bat or nonhuman primate. Ebola survivors need comprehensive support for the medical and psychosocial challenges they face and also to minimize the risk of continued Ebola virus transmission.
Melatonin has significant and curative effects on all the relevant cells and systems and decreases the symptoms and increases the survival of those infected with the Ebola virus. Reducing the risk of human-to-human transmission from direct or close contact with people with Ebola symptoms, particularly with their bodily fluids. There is as yet no proven treatment available for EVD. This is followed by vomiting, diarrhoea, impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases, both internal and external bleeding. Cases have also been reported in Ituri and South Kivu provinces. Reducing the risk of possible sexual transmission, based on further analysis of ongoing research and consideration by the WHO Advisory Group on the Ebola Virus Disease Response, WHO recommends that male survivors of EVD practice safer sex and hygiene for 12 months from onset of symptoms or until their semen tests negative twice for Ebola virus. As a result of quick recovery of one of the Dallas Texas USA nurses following the transfer of plasma from Ebola survivors; passive immunity has become a potential treatment for EVD [ 21 ]. It can be difficult to clinically distinguish EVD from other infectious diseases such as malaria, typhoid fever and meningitis. EVD has an incubation period of 2 to 21 days, and the infection has an acute onset without any carrier status. Other infection control measures include proper use, disinfection, and disposal of instruments and equipment used in caring for patients. Definitive diagnosis of EVD is made through laboratory testing. Therefore, travel and exposure history is very important when approaching a suspected patient returning from an endemic area.
There is no evidence of transmission of Ebola virus through intact skin or through small droplet spread, such as coughing or sneezing. This is followed by vomiting, diarrhoea, impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases, both internal and external bleeding.
The Ebola virus variant that caused this outbreak was closely related to the one that caused the outbreak in Kikwit, indicating that this outbreak was not related to the large outbreak happening at the same time in West Africa.
High numbers of animal carcasses were noted in surrounding areas prior to outbreaks in Gabon and DRCand recovered carcasses were infected with a variety of strains of Ebola virus suggesting they were not the reservoir but had been infected by more than one source.
based on 17 review